Efferen

Kleine Geschichte des Ortes Efferen

Efferen gehörte seit dem Mittelalter zum Herzogtum Jülich. Nach der französischen Besetzung des Rheinlands nach 1794 bildete der Ort gemeinsam mit den Gemeinden Stotzheim und Kriel eine Mairie (Bürgermeisterei) im Département de la Roer. 1888 wurde die Gemeinde Kriel, wo sich auch das Rathaus der Bürgermeisterei befunden hatte, nach Köln eingemeindet. Die Bürgermeisterei Efferen wurde nun bis 1919 gemeinsam mit Hürth verwaltet. Nach einer kurzen Eigenständigkeit wurde sie dann ab 1933 mit Hürth zur Großgemeinde vereinigt.

Efferen war stark landwirtschaftlich geprägt. Die wichtigsten Höfe waren das Brentengut (im Besitz des Deutschen Ordens, dann der Familie von Efferen und der weiteren Burgherren und schließlich des Stifts Sankt Maria im Kapitol aus Köln), das Lupenaugut, der Weidenbach- oder Renneberghof gegenüber der Burg (dort, wo inzwischen der Renneberg als Kirmes-, Markt- und Parkplatz entstanden ist). Im Dreißigjährigen Krieg fiel er den Holländern zum Opfer), das Bredemargut (in dessen Herrenhaus an der Bachstraße in der Endzeit der Weimarer Republik die Verwaltung der Bürgermeisterei Efferen saß, später dann die örtliche NSDAP), der Lintlarhof, der lange Jahre im Besitz der Familie Destrée war und auf dessen Gelände hinter der Grundschule unter anderem die evangelische Kirche entstand, der Große Hof oder Mirweilerhof und der Frohnhof.

Entlang des Duffesbachs gab es in Efferen nur eine Mühle, die Lowenmühle, (wahrscheinlich von Gerber-„Lohe“) später, als dort auch Waffen geschliffen wurden, Schleifkottenmühle oder nur „der Schleifkotten“ genannt. Sie stand etwas außerhalb des Ortes in Richtung Köln und wurde 1211 erstmals urkundlich erwähnt. Grundherrin war auch hier das Stift Sankt Maria im Kapitol. Nachdem die Mühle abgerissen worden war, siedelten sich hier vereinzelt kleinere Gewerbebetriebe an, die zum Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges alle nicht mehr existierten. Die letzten Häuser des Wohnplatzes Schleifkotten sind 1976 abgerissen worden, die Fläche wurde teilweise aufgeforstet und ist nicht mehr vom Kölner Grüngürtel zu unterscheiden. Die Anlage des Kölner Grüngürtels (1924 durch Konrad Adenauer betrieben) kostete Efferen ein Drittel seines Ackerlandes.

In der Weimarer Zeit war das Zentrum die dominierende politische Kraft im Ort, Karl Kuenen war Bürgermeister. Im Rahmen der Weltwirtschaftskrise verschlimmerte sich die finanzielle Situation in Efferen derart, dass nur der Anschluss an eine der deutlich reicheren Nachbargemeinden, also Köln oder Hürth, die Lebenssituation der Bevölkerung nennenswert bessern konnte. Hürth lehnte ab; den Anschluss an das interessierte Köln verhinderte der heftige Widerspruch der anderen Landkölner Gemeinden, die Angst hatten, „mitgeschluckt“ zu werden. Erst 1933 wurde Efferen zwangsweise mit Erlass des preußischen Innenministeriums nach Hürth eingemeindet. In den 1970er Jahren gab es in NRW mit der kommunalen Gebietsreform einen erneuten Versuch Kölns, Efferen nach Köln einzugemeinden, was eine Unterschriftenaktion und die Intervention von Lokalpolitikern verhindern konnte.

Am 31. Oktober 1944 wurden große Teile von Efferen, darunter auch die Kirche und das Krankenhaus sowie das Kloster, durch einen Bombenangriff zerstört. 36 Menschen verloren ihr Leben.

Ortsname
Zur Erklärung des Ortsnamens Efferens bestehen drei Theorien, die Hans Duell in seiner Ortschronik erläutert. So könnte etwa ein, mit dem Römischen Reich föderierter, wohlhabender, Ubier namens Eberhard oder Eborin mundartlich “Effer” genannt worden sein, der daraufhin sein Landgut “Efferna sala” genannt haben könnte. Ein zweiter Erklärungsansatz geht vom lat. Wort für “heraustragen” (im Sinne von “aus dem Haus/der Stadt zur Beerdigung tragen”), “effere” aus. Demnach sei Efferen eine römische Begräbnisstätte gewesen. Für diese Theorie spricht, dass es bei den Römern Sitte war, verstorbene Bürger an den Ausfallstraßen vor den Toren der Stadt zu beerdigen. 1899 wurde auf dem Ortsgebiet von Efferen eine römische Grabkammer entdeckt (s. o. “Geschichte”). Die dritte Theorie bezieht sich auf das, auch heute noch erhaltene, Sicker- bzw. Klärbecken an der Berrenrather Straße im Grüngürtel, einem Gebiet, das früher Teil der Efferener Gemeinde gewesen ist. Dieses Klärbecken war ursprünglich ein Teil der Eifelwasserleitung. Die Ortsbezeichnung Efferen könnte somit an das Wort “everre” (lat. „Ort des Ausfegens“) angelehnt sein.

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